IMPORTANT CONCEPTS

Hello Mathletes,

It is highly recommended that you master a few important concepts as you become a member of the Math Club. Though there are many mathematical concepts you must be well versed with, the three most important ones include **Geometry**, **Algebra** and **Probability**. The details about these concepts, and the tips to learn and master them are provided in the sections below:

CONCEPT 1: GEOMETRY

**What is Geometry?**

Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths, areas, and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. While geometry has evolved significantly throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, lines, planes, surfaces, angles, and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric. Geometry has applications to many fields. These fields include art, architecture, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics.

**What can you do to enhance your Geometry skills?**

There are various mathematics textbooks which you can use to improve your Geometry. The textbook that we recommend for starters is: **Merrill Geometry**. An image of this book is provided below. There are over 100 more Geometry textbooks available at Math Club. You should ideally be studying from as many Geometry books as you can.

You can even watch the video below to learn more about Basic Geometry. To learn about advanced Geometry, check out more videos on Youtube from the channel: **Math Fortress**. There are also other channels on **Youtube** that you can watch in order to improve your Geometry skills. You can also seek guidance from Mr Richards or Nikola.

CONCEPT 2: ALGEBRA

**What is Algebra?**

Algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing with the abstraction of concepts and properties of elementary mathematical objects such as numbers, polynomials, matrices, etc. Historically, it is divided into elementary algebra which was closely related to the properties of particular objects and deals mainly with symbolic manipulation of expressions and solving equations. Abstract algebra (modern algebra) studies general algebraic structures. Algebra has evolved on arithmetic. Modern algebra in its current form and terminology was defined by the breakthrough book Modern Algebra of German Mathematician Bartel van der Waerden.

**What can you do to enhance your Algebra skills?**

There are various mathematics textbooks which you can use to improve your Algebra. The textbook that we recommend for starters is: **Algebra 2**. An image of this book is provided below. There are over 200 more Algebra textbooks available at Math Club. You should ideally be studying from as many Algebra books as you can.

You can even watch the video below to learn more about Basic Algebra. To learn about advanced Algebra, check out more videos on Youtube from the channel: **The Organic Chemistry Tutor**. There are also other channels on **Youtube** that you can watch in order to improve your Algebra skills. You can also seek guidance from Mr Richards or Nikola.

CONCEPT 3: PROBABILITY

**What is Probability?**

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. Probability is quantified as a number between 0 and 1, where, loosely speaking, 0 indicates impossibility and 1 indicates certainty. The higher the probability of an event, the more likely it is that the event will occur. A simple example is the tossing of a fair (unbiased) coin. Since the coin is fair, the two outcomes ("heads" and "tails") are both equally probable; the probability of "heads" equals the probability of "tails"; and since no other outcomes are possible, the probability of either "heads" or "tails" is 1/2 (which could also be written as 0.5 or 50%). These concepts have been given an axiomatic mathematical formalization in probability theory; which is used widely in areas of study like mathematics, statistics, finance, science (in particular physics), artificial intelligence/machine learning, computer science, game theory, and philosophy. Probability theory is also used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex systems.

**What can you do to enhance your Probability skills?**

There are various mathematics textbooks which you can use in order to improve your Probability skills. The textbook that we recommend for starters is: **Introductory Analysis**. An image of this book is provided below. There are over 50 Probability textbooks available at Math Club.

You can even watch the video below to learn more about Binomial Probability. To learn about other aspects of Probability, check out more videos on Youtube from the channel: **Scott Stevens**. There are also other channels on **Youtube** that you can watch in order to improve your Probability skills. You can also seek guidance from Mr Richards or Nikola.

STRATEGIES

Hello Mathletes,

Do you find some difficulties in solving Math problems? Do you want to improve your math skills in order to overcome those difficulties? If that is the case, Math Club offers a lot of strategies that can help you in comprehending Math! We can guarantee that these strategies will improve your Math skills! All of the useful and proficient strategies are present in the sections below. If you need additional help, feel free to contact Mr Richards or Nikola.

STRATEGY 1: FACTORING

Factoring is a very important and helpful strategy in solving contemporary Math problems. Mastery of factoring can help you improve your skills in various mathematical aspects (like Algebra). To learn basic factoring, check out the video below. You can learn more advanced factoring by checking out the Youtube channel: **Brian McLogan**.

STRATEGY 2: GRAPHING

Graphing is also a very important and helpful strategy in solving contemporary Math problems. Mastery of graphing can help you improve your skills in various aspects of mathematics. To learn basic graphing, check out the two videos below by Khan Academy. You can learn more advanced graphing by checking Khan Academy's Youtube channel.

STRATEGY 3: USE OF TI-84

The TI-84 calculator is an essential tool that can help you a lot in solving Math. Mastering the use of the TI-84 calculator can help you in improving your skills across all virtual aspects of mathematics. To learn how to use the TI-84 calculator, check out the video below (you can watch more videos on the YouTube channel: **KermMartian**). You can also read through the PDF document below the video.

STRATEGY 4: MATH WEBSITES

There are a lot of excellent websites on the internet that can help you in learning new math skills and enhancing them. These websites contain interactive activities that can essentially support you in developing your math skills. The two best websites that we would recommend are www.mathcounts.org and cs.khanacademy.org. Present below is a video from www.mathcounts.org. Below the video, there are also two PDFs from www.mathcounts.org. The first PDF contains the questions while the second PDF contains the answers.